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Open Access Research

Developmental patterns of DR6 in normal human hippocampus and in Down syndrome

Anand Iyer1, Jackelien van Scheppingen1, Jasper Anink1, Ivan Milenkovic2, Gabor G Kovács2 and Eleonora Aronica134*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of (Neuro)Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, AZ 1105, The Netherlands

2 Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

3 SEIN – Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland, Heemstede, The Netherlands

4 Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Center for Neuroscience, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2013, 5:10  doi:10.1186/1866-1955-5-10

Published: 24 April 2013

Abstract

Background

Death receptor 6 (DR6) is highly expressed in the human brain: it has been shown to induce axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases and to mediate axonal degeneration through binding to N-terminal β amyloid precursor protein (N-APP).

Methods

We investigated the expression of DR6 during prenatal and postnatal development in human hippocampus and temporal cortex by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis (118 normal human brain specimens; 9 to 41 gestational weeks; 1 day to 7 months postnatally; 3 to 91 years). To investigate the role of N-APP/DR6/caspase 6 pathway in the development of hippocampal Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated pathology, we examined DR6 immunoreactivity (IR) in the developing hippocampus from patients with Down syndrome (DS; 48 brain specimens; 14 to 41 gestational weeks; 7 days to 8 months postnatally; 15 to 64 years) and in adults with DS and AD.

Results

DR6 was highly expressed in human adult hippocampus and temporal cortex: we observed consistent similar temporal and spatial expression in both control and DS brain. Western blot analysis of total homogenates of temporal cortex and hippocampus showed developmental regulation of DR6. In the hippocampus, DR6 IR was first apparent in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare at 16 weeks of gestation, followed by stratum oriens, radiatum, pyramidale (CA1 to CA4) and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus between 21 and 23 gestational weeks, reaching a pattern similar to adult hippocampus around birth. Increased DR6 expression in dystrophic neurites was detected focally in a 15-year-old DS patient. Abnormal DR6 expression pattern, with increased expression within dystrophic neurites in and around amyloid plaques was observed in adult DS patients with widespread AD-associated neurodegeneration and was similar to the pattern observed in AD hippocampus. Double-labeling experiments demonstrated the colocalization, in dystrophic neurites, of DR6 with APP. We also observed colocalization with hyper-phosphorylated Tau and with caspase 6 (increased in hippocampus with AD pathology) in plaque-associated dystrophic neurites and within the white matter.

Conclusions

These findings demonstrate a developmental regulation of DR6 in human hippocampus and suggest an abnormal activation of the N-APP/DR6/caspase 6 pathway, which can contribute to initiation or progression of hippocampal AD-associated pathology.

Keywords:
Alzheimer’s disease; APP; Death receptor 6; Development; Down syndrome; Hippocampus; Neurodegeneration